References

1) The primary variables that constitute living costs include housing and utilities; household, clothing and personal; savings; telephone; transportation; health care; childcare; and taxes.

2) Henry, B. & Fredericksen, A. (2014). America’s changing economy: Searching for work that pays in the new low-wage job market. Alliance for a Just Society. https://thejobgap.org/

3) Economic Policy Institute (2013). Census report shows stagnant incomes: Safety net programs keep millions out of poverty, only the top five percent are recovering from the Great Recession. http://www.epi.org/press/census-report-shows-stagnant-incomes-safety/

4) The Project on Student Debt (2013). Student debt and the class of 2012. http://projectonstudentdebt.org/files/pub/classof2012.pdf

5) Oliff, P., Palacios, V., Johnson, I., and M. Leachman (2013). Recent deep state higher education cuts may harm students and the economy for years to come. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. http://www.cbpp.org/cms/?fa=view&id=3927

6) Martin, A. (2012). Building a showcase campus, using an I.O.U. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/12/14/business/colleges-debt-falls-on-students-after-construction-binges.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0

7) Oliff, P., Palacios, V., Johnson, I., and M. Leachman (2013). Recent deep state higher education cuts may harm students and the economy for years to come. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. http://www.cbpp.org/cms/?fa=view&id=3927

8) Severns, M. (2013). The student loan debt crisis in 9 charts. Mother Jones. http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2013/06/student-loan-debt-charts

9) College Board Advocacy & Policy Center (2013). Trends in higher education: Average published tuition and fees by state, 2004-05 through 2012-13. http://trends.collegeboard.org/college-pricing/figures-tables/state-tuition-and-fees-state-and-sector-over-time

10) Webley, K. (2012). Why can’t you discharge student loans in bankruptcy? Time. http://business.time.com/2012/02/09/why-cant-you-discharge-student-loans-in-bankruptcy/

11) FinAid (2013). Historical interest rates. http://www.finaid.org/loans/historicalrates.phtml

12) Henry, B. & Fredericksen, A. (2013). America’s changing economy: Searching for work that pays in the new low-wage job market. Alliance for a Just Society.

13) Vedder, R., Denhart, C., & Robe, J. (2013). Why are recent college graduates underemployed? University enrollments and labor market realities. Center for College Affordability and Productivity. http://centerforcollegeaffordability.org/uploads/Underemployed%20Report%202.pdf

14) Rogers, K. (2013). How student loans are suffocating the middle class. Fox Business. http://www.foxbusiness.com/personal-finance/2013/06/04/college-loans-hurting-middle-class/

15) ElBoghdady, D (2014). How student debt crushes your chances of buying a home. The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/wonkblog/wp/2014/08/11/how-student-debt-crushes-your-chances-of-buying-a-home/?tid=pm_business_pop

16) Oliff, P., Palacios, V., Johnson, I., and M. Leachman (2013). Recent deep state higher education cuts may harm students and the economy for years to come. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. http://www.cbpp.org/cms/?fa=view&id=3927

17) The Project on Student Debt (2009). Student debt and the class of 2008. http://www.ticas.org/files/pub/classof2008.pdf

18) The Project on Student Debt (2013). Student debt and the class of 2012. http://projectonstudentdebt.org/files/pub/classof2012.pdf

19) Experian. All about credit. http://www.experian.com/assets/consumer-education-content/brochures/AllAboutCredit%5B1%5D.pdf

20) Everyman Credit (2013). 7 tips to avoid student credit card debt. http://www.everymanbusiness.com/finance/avoid-student-credit-card-debt/

21) Federal Reserve (2013). Consumer experiences with credit cards. Federal Reserve Bulletin 99:5. http://www.federalreserve.gov/pubs/bulletin/2013/pdf/consumer-experiences-with-credit-cards-201312.pdf

22) Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (2014). CFPB issues consumer advisory on industry’s data breach. http://www.consumerfinance.gov/newsroom/cfpb-issues-consumer-advisory-on-industrys-data-breach/

23) Statistic Brain (2014). Credit card debt statistics. http://www.statisticbrain.com/credit-card-debt-statistics/

24) Von Hoffman, C. (2014). Close to half of Americans have more credit card debt than savings. CBS Moneywatch. http://www.cbsnews.com/news/51-percent-have-enough-cash-to-pay-off-credit-card-debt-study/

25) Statistic Brain (2014). Credit card debt statistics. http://www.statisticbrain.com/credit-card-debt-statistics/

26) Wilson, R. (2013). Ranking the states: Credit card debt. The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/govbeat/wp/2013/08/20/ranking-the-states-credit-card-debt/

27) Statistic Brain (2014). Credit card debt statistics. http://www.statisticbrain.com/credit-card-debt-statistics/

28) Fuquay, J. (2013). Medicaid ‘doughnut hole’ leaves many working poor without healthcare subsidies. Star-Telegram. http://www.star-telegram.com/2013/09/28/5202327/medicaid-doughnut-hole-leaves.html

29) The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation (2013). Key facts about the uninsured population. http://kff.org/uninsured/fact-sheet/key-facts-about-the-uninsured-population/

30) WhiteHouse.gov (2014). 24 states are refusing to expand Medicaid. Here’s what that means for their residents. http://www.whitehouse.gov/share/medicaid-map

31) The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation (2014). Medical debt among people with health insurance. http://kaiserfamilyfoundation.files.wordpress.com/2014/01/8537-medical-debt-among-people-with-health-insurance.pdf

32) Ibid.

33) National People’s Action (2012). Profiting from poverty: How payday lenders strip wealth from the working-poor for record profits. http://npa-us.org/files/images/profiting_from_poverty_npa_payday_loan_report_jan_2012_0.pdf

34) https://www.acecashexpress.com/payday-loans/what-is-a-payday-loan

35) Center for Responsible Lending (2009). Predatory profiling. http://www.responsiblelending.org/payday-lending/research-analysis/predatory-profiling.html

36) Consumer Finance Protection Bureau (2013). Payday loans and deposit advance products. http://files.consumerfinance.gov/f/201304_cfpb_payday-dap-whitepaper.pdf

37) Center for American Progress (2009). A word of caution on payday loans. http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/regulation/news/2009/04/07/5850/a-word-of-caution-on-payday-loans/

38) Paydayloaninfo.org. Legal status of payday loans by state. http://www.paydayloaninfo.org/state-information

39) USA Today (2010). Montana Voters Cap Payday Short-Term Loans at 36% http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/money/perfi/credit/2010-11-04-payday04_ST_N.htm

40) Public Citizen (2007) Oregon Curbs Payday Lenders http://pubcit.typepad.com/clpblog/2007/06/oregon_curbs_pa.html

41) Virginia State Corporation Commission (2008) Notice to Virginia Payday Loan Customers https://www.scc.virginia.gov/bfi/files/10vac5_200_notice.pdf

42) The Pew Charitable Trusts (2014) State Payday Loan Regulation and Usage Rates http://www.pewtrusts.org/en/multimedia/data-visualizations/2014/state-payday-loan-regulation-and-usage-rates

43) The Spokesman-Review (2014). Editorial: Payday Loan Study Shows Idaho Needs New Laws http://www.spokesman.com/stories/2014/apr/22/editorial-payday-loan-study-shows-idaho-needs-new/

44) Ibid.

45) The Miami Herald (2013). Payday Lenders Move Online as Regulators Crack Down http://www.miamiherald.com/2013/09/09/3609968/payday-lenders-move-online-as.html; New York Times (2014). New York State Makes Effort to Combat Payday Lenders. http://dealbook.nytimes.com/2014/04/29/embargo-new-york-makes-new-efforts-to-combat-payday-lenders/?_php=true&_type=blogs&_php=true&_type=blogs&_php=true&_type=blogs&_r=2&

46) Better Business Bureau (2010). BBB Warns Against Deceitful Online Payday Lenders http://www.bbb.org/us/article/bbb-warns-against-online-payday-lenders-that-claim-the-laws-dont-apply-to-them-17855

47) Callis, R. & Kresin, M. (2014). Residential vacancies and homeownership in the second quarter 2014. U.S. Department of Commerce. http://www.census.gov/housing/hvs/files/currenthvspress.pdf

48) Federal Reserve Bank of New York (2014). Household debt and credit report. http://www.newyorkfed.org/householdcredit/2014-Q1/

49) Nerdwallet.com (2014). American household credit card debt statistics. http://www.nerdwallet.com/blog/credit-card-data/average-credit-card-debt-household/

50) RealtyTrac (2014). 9.1 million U.S. residential properties seriously underwater in first quarter, lowest level in two years.

51) Core Logic (2013). Core Logic reports 1.4 million borrowers returned to ‘positive equity’ year to date through the end of the third quarter 2012.

52) Henry, B. & Fredericksen, A. (2013). America’s changing economy: Searching for work that pays in the new low-wage job market. Alliance for a Just Society. https://thejobgap.org/

53) Cooper, D. & Essrow, D. (2013). Low-wage workers are older than you think. Economic Policy Institute. http://www.epi.org/publication/wage-workers-older-88-percent-workers-benefit/

54) http://www.berkeley.edu/news/media/releases/2007/09/04_blackworkers.shtml

55) United States Census Bureau (2012). Selected population profile in the United States: 2012 American Community Survey 1-year estimates. http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?src=bkmk

56) United States Census Bureau (2013). Household income: 2012. http://www.census.gov/prod/2013pubs/acsbr12-02.pdf

57) http://rocunited.org/realizing-the-dream/

58) The Project on Student Debt (2013). Student debt and the class of 2012. http://projectonstudentdebt.org/files/pub/classof2012.pdf

59) Wilson, R. (2013). Ranking the states: Credit card debt. The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/govbeat/wp/2013/08/20/ranking-the-states-credit-card-debt/

60) Core Logic (2013). Core Logic reports 1.4 million borrowers returned to ‘positive equity’ year to date through the end of the third quarter 2012.

61) The Project on Student Debt (2013). Student debt and the class of 2012. http://projectonstudentdebt.org/files/pub/classof2012.pdf

62) Wilson, R. (2013). Ranking the states: Credit card debt. The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/govbeat/wp/2013/08/20/ranking-the-states-credit-card-debt/

63) Core Logic (2013). Core Logic reports 1.4 million borrowers returned to ‘positive equity’ year to date through the end of the third quarter 2012.

64) The Project on Student Debt (2013). Student debt and the class of 2012. http://projectonstudentdebt.org/files/pub/classof2012.pdf

65) Wilson, R. (2013). Ranking the states: Credit card debt. The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/govbeat/wp/2013/08/20/ranking-the-states-credit-card-debt/

66) WhiteHouse.gov (2014). 24 states are refusing to expand Medicaid. Here’s what that means for their residents. http://www.whitehouse.gov/share/medicaid-map

67) Core Logic (2013). Core Logic reports 1.4 million borrowers returned to ‘positive equity’ year to date through the end of the third quarter 2012.

68) The Project on Student Debt (2013). Student debt and the class of 2012. http://projectonstudentdebt.org/files/pub/classof2012.pdf

69) Wilson, R. (2013). Ranking the states: Credit card debt. The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/govbeat/wp/2013/08/20/ranking-the-states-credit-card-debt/

70) WhiteHouse.gov (2014). 24 states are refusing to expand Medicaid. Here’s what that means for their residents. http://www.whitehouse.gov/share/medicaid-map

71) Core Logic (2013). Core Logic reports 1.4 million borrowers returned to ‘positive equity’ year to date through the end of the third quarter 2012.

72) The Project on Student Debt (2013). Student debt and the class of 2012. http://projectonstudentdebt.org/files/pub/classof2012.pdf

73) Wilson, R. (2013). Ranking the states: Credit card debt. The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/govbeat/wp/2013/08/20/ranking-the-states-credit-card-debt/

74) WhiteHouse.gov (2014). 24 states are refusing to expand Medicaid. Here’s what that means for their residents. http://www.whitehouse.gov/share/medicaid-map

75) The Project on Student Debt (2013). Student debt and the class of 2012. http://projectonstudentdebt.org/files/pub/classof2012.pdf

76) Wilson, R. (2013). Ranking the states: Credit card debt. The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/govbeat/wp/2013/08/20/ranking-the-states-credit-card-debt/

77) WhiteHouse.gov (2014). 24 states are refusing to expand Medicaid. Here’s what that means for their residents. http://www.whitehouse.gov/share/medicaid-map

78) Core Logic (2013). Core Logic reports 1.4 million borrowers returned to ‘positive equity’ year to date through the end of the third quarter 2012.

79) The Project on Student Debt (2013). Student debt and the class of 2012. http://projectonstudentdebt.org/files/pub/classof2012.pdf

80) Wilson, R. (2013). Ranking the states: Credit card debt. The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/govbeat/wp/2013/08/20/ranking-the-states-credit-card-debt/

81) Core Logic (2013). Core Logic reports 1.4 million borrowers returned to ‘positive equity’ year to date through the end of the third quarter 2012.

82) The Project on Student Debt (2013). Student debt and the class of 2012. http://projectonstudentdebt.org/files/pub/classof2012.pdf

83) Wilson, R. (2013). Ranking the states: Credit card debt. The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/govbeat/wp/2013/08/20/ranking-the-states-credit-card-debt/

84) Core Logic (2013). Core Logic reports 1.4 million borrowers returned to ‘positive equity’ year to date through the end of the third quarter 2012.

85) The Project on Student Debt (2013). Student debt and the class of 2012. http://projectonstudentdebt.org/files/pub/classof2012.pdf

86) Wilson, R. (2013). Ranking the states: Credit card debt. The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/govbeat/wp/2013/08/20/ranking-the-states-credit-card-debt/

87) WhiteHouse.gov (2014). 24 states are refusing to expand Medicaid. Here’s what that means for their residents. http://www.whitehouse.gov/share/medicaid-map

88) Core Logic (2013). Core Logic reports 1.4 million borrowers returned to ‘positive equity’ year to date through the end of the third quarter 2012.

89) The Project on Student Debt (2013). Student debt and the class of 2012. http://projectonstudentdebt.org/files/pub/classof2012.pdf

90) Wilson, R. (2013). Ranking the states: Credit card debt. The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/govbeat/wp/2013/08/20/ranking-the-states-credit-card-debt/

91) Core Logic (2013). Core Logic reports 1.4 million borrowers returned to ‘positive equity’ year to date through the end of the third quarter 2012.

92) Alliance analysis of BLS CPI data.

93) http://www.remappingdebate.org/map-data-tool/individual-minimum-wage-versus-family-poverty-threshold

94) U.S. Department of Agriculture, Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion “Cost of Food at Home, U.S. Average at Four Levels,” available at http://www.cnpp.usda.gov/USDAFoodCost-Home.htm

95) U.S. Department of Agriculture, “Official USDA Food Plans: Cost of Food at Home at Four Levels, U.S. Average, December 2012,” available at http://www.cnpp.usda.gov/USDAFoodCost-Home.htm

96) Derived from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development’s Fair Market Rent County Level Data File, available at http://www.huduser.org/datasets/fmr.html.

97) U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, “Affordable Housing,” November 1, 2010, available at http://www.hud.gov/offices/cpd/affordablehousing/

98) From https://shop.centurylink.com, http://www.fairpoint.com, http://www.sagetelecom.net/ and through email conversations with a representative from New York. Numbers are current as of October 2012 for Colorado, Idaho, Maine, Montana, Oregon, and Washington, and are current as of September 2013 for Connecticut, Florida, Nevada, and Virginia.

99) Available online at http://nhts.ornl.gov/.

100) Internal Revenue Service, “Standard Mileage Rates,”available at http://www.irs.gov/taxpros/article/0,,id=156624,00.html

101) Tim Reuscher, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, National Transportation Research Center, personal communication, August 17, 2004.

102) For IRS standard mileage rates, see http://www.irs.gov/taxpros/article/0,,id=156624,00.html

103) JOBS NOW Coalition, “The Cost of Living in Minnesota 2002,” 2003. The methods used to update the health care section of the 2001 Northwest Job Gap Study were largely modeled on the JOBS NOW report and input from authors Colette LaFond and Bill McMahon of UrbanPlanet.

104) The Commonwealth Fund, On the Edge: Low-Wage Workers and Their Health Insurance Coverage, April 2003.

105) Ibid.

106) The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. (2012). Health Insurance Coverage of the Total Population. http://www.statehealthfacts.org/comparebar.jsp?ind=125&cat=3

107) U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Health Care Research and Quality, Private-Sector Data by Firm Size and State, 2012(Table II Series), 2009, available at http://www.meps.ahrq.gov/mepsweb/data_stats/quick_tables.jsp.

108) Doris Lefkowitz, Director, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, Agency for Health Care Research and Quality, personal communication, July 29, 2004.

109) U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Health care Research and Quality, “Table 1: Total Health Services-Median and Mean Expenses per Person With Expense and Distribution of Expenses by Source of Payment: United States, 2010 and 2011,” Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Household Component Data. Generated interactively. available at http://www.meps.ahrq.gov/mepsweb/data_stats/quick_tables_results.jsp?component=1&subcomponent=0&year=2010&tableSeries=1&searchText=&searchMethod=1&Action=Search.

110) Consumer Expenditure Survey, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, “2009 Expenditure Shares Tables by Region of Residence” (Table 52), available at http://www.bls.gov/cex/2009/share/region.pdf

111) This formula is available online at http://www.asec.org/ballpark/.

112) America Saves, Most Behind in Retirement Saving, April 26, 2000.

113) This figure is consistent with previous versions of the Job Gap Study.

114) Economic Policy Institute, How Much is Enough? Basic Family Budgets for Working Families, 2000.

115) As discussed in overview of OES, available at: http://www.bls.gov/oes/home.htm.

 

 

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