Restricted occupation categories was completed based on data from the American Bar Association Criminal Justice Section’s National Inventory of the Collateral Consequences of Criminal Convictions.50 Counts of restrictions by state and detailed analyses were based on mandatory restrictions for all felonies in the following database categories: Employment; Occupational and professional license and certification; and business license and other property rights.


Occupation categories were developed from the employment restriction data for 16 states and Washington, D.C. Occupations were coded by field, rather than by activity to produce broad categories that differ from other occupational or industry categories, such as those from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. For example, security guards, police officers, and security alarm technicians are in the same category (Law Enforcement and Security).


Job openings include the following:

  • Job openings due to growth — the result of new jobs being created by new or existing firms.
  • Job openings due to replacement — the result of people retiring, entering school or the military, moving across state boundaries, changing occupations, or otherwise leaving the occupation in which they currently work.
The analysis does not include job openings that result from people changing employers but remaining in the same occupation, since these are largely invisible to the average job seeker. Also not included, for similar reasons, are job openings for unpaid family workers and self-employment.

Though occupation categories in this report do not exactly match those by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the number of job openings for Law Enforcement & Security, Health Care, and Legal Services are based on the most comparable categories from Occupational Employment Projections 2012-2022 data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics.


Wage analysis for Law Enforcement & Security, Health Care, and Legal Services are based on the weighted average – based on number of projected openings – of median wages for occupations in the most comparable categories from the Bureau of Labor Statistics.


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