1 Ensellem, M. & Ziedenberg, J. (2015). “Strategies for full employment through reform of the criminal justice system.” Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. http://www.cbpp.org/research/ full-employment/strategies-for-full-employment-through-reform-of-the-criminal-justice

2 Author’s analysis of conditional and unconditional release data from Carson, E & Mulako-Wangota, J. (2015). “Count of Total Releases 2010-2014.” Bureau of Justice Statistics. Generated using the Corrections Statistical Analysis Tool (CSAT) – Prisoners at http://www.bjs.gov.

3 Bonczar, T., Kaeble, D., & Maruschak, L. (2015). “Probation and parole in the United States, 2014.” Bureau of Justice Statistics. http://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=5415

4 Fredericksen, A. (2015). “Pay up! Long hours and low pay leave workers at a loss.” Alliance for a Just Society. https://jobgap2013.files.wordpress.com/2015/10/pay-up-revised-final.pdf

5 Fredericksen, A. (2015). “Patchwork of paychecks: A shortage of full-time living wage jobs leaves workers scrambling to make ends meet.” Alliance for a Just Society. https://jobgap2013.files.wordpress.com/2015/12/patchwork_of_paychecks.pdf

6 Wright, K. (2013). “Boxed in: How a criminal record keeps you unemployed for life.” The Nation. http://www.thenation.com/article/boxed-how-criminalrecord-keeps-you-unemployed-life/

7 Johnson, C. (2015). “Pa. court: Unconstitutional to bar employment due to criminal record.” National Public Radio. http://www.npr.org/2015/12/30/461500728/penn-courtunconstitutional-to-bar-employment-due-tocriminal-record

8 Ensellem, M. & Ziedenberg, J. (2015). “Strategies for full employment through reform of the criminal justice system.” Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. http://www.cbpp.org/research/fullemployment/strategies-for-full-employmentthrough- reform-of-the-criminal-justice

9 Author’s analysis of conditional and unconditional release data from Carson, E & Mulako-Wangota, J. (2015). “Count of Total Releases 2010-2014.” Bureau of Justice Statistics. Generated using the Corrections Statistical Analysis Tool (CSAT) – Prisoners at http://www.bjs.gov.

10 Catalyst (2014). “Quick take: People of color in the United States.” http://www.catalyst.org/ knowledge/women-color-united-states-0

11 Author’s analysis of Bureau of Justice Statistics (2015) “Estimated sentenced state and federal prisoners per 100,000 U.S. residents, by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age, December 31, 2014.” Generated using the Corrections Statistical Analysis Tool at http://www.bjs.gov.

12 American Civil Liberties Union (2014). “Written submission of the American Civil Liberties Union on racial disparities in sentencing.” Submitted to the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights.

13 American Civil Liberties Union (2014). “Written submission of the American Civil Liberties Union on racial disparities in sentencing.” Submitted to the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights.

14 American Civil Liberties Union (2014). “Written submission of the American Civil Liberties Union on racial disparities in sentencing.” Submitted to the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights. https://www.aclu.org/sites/default/files/assets/141027_iachr_racial_disparities_aclu_submission_0.pdf

15 Polk, Z. (2015). “Best practices in fair-chance enforcement.” National Employment Law Project. http://www.nelp.org/publication/best-practicesin-fair-chance-enforcement/

16 Wright, K. (2013). “Boxed in: How a criminal record keeps you unemployed for life.” The Nation. http://www.thenation.com/article/boxed-how-criminalrecord-keeps-you-unemployed-life/

17 Pager, D. (2003). “The mark of a criminal record.” American Journal of Sociology 108(5). http://scholar.harvard.edu/files/pager/files/pager_ajs.pdf

18 National Employment Law Project (2015). “Ensuring people with convictions have a fair chance to work.” http://www.nelp.org/campaign/ensuring-fair-chance-to-work/

19 Pager, D. (2003). “The mark of a criminal record.” American Journal of Sociology 108(5). http://scholar.harvard.edu/files/pager/files/pager_ajs.pdf

20 Rodriguez, M., & Mehta, N. (2015). “Ban the box:U.S. cities, counties, and states adopt fair hiring policies to reduce barriers to employment of people with conviction records. National Employment Law Project. http://www.nelp.org/content/uploads/Ban-the-Box-Fair-Chance-State-and-Local-Guide.pdf

21 Jacksonville, Florida Ordinance 2008-911-E.http://nelp.3cdn.net/875d685220c2b5cbd2_ gcm6bn5wh.pdf

22 Knafo, S. (2013). “When it comes to illegal drug use, white America does the crime, black America gets the time.” Huffington Post. http://www. huffingtonpost.com/2013/09/17/racial-disparitydrug-use_n_3941346.html

23 NAACP. “Criminal justice fact sheet.” http://www.naacp.org/pages/criminal-justice-fact-sheet

24 Demby, G. (2014). “Study reveals worse outcomes for black and Latino defendants.” National Public Radio. http://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2014/07/17/332075947/study-revealsworse-outcomes-for-black-and-latino-defendants

25 Political Research Associates (2005). “Defending justice: An activist resource kit – How is the criminal justice system racist?” http://www.publiceye.org/defendingjustice/pdfs/ factsheets/10-Fact%20Sheet%20-%20System%20as%20Racist.pdf

26 The Leadership Conference. “Justice on Trial.” http://www.civilrights.org/publications/justiceon-trial/sentencing.html

27 American Bar Association Criminal Justice Section (2015). National Inventory of the Collateral Consequences of Criminal Conviction. http://abacollateralconsequences.org/

28 Fredericksen, A. & Lassiter, L. (2015). “Debtors’ prisons redux: How legal loopholes let courts across the country criminalize poverty.” Alliance for a Just Society. http://allianceforajustsociety.org/issues/criminalization-of-poverty/

29 Carter, M. & Adcock, C. (2015). “Prisoners of debt: Justice system imposes steep fines, fees.” Oklahoma Watch. http://oklahomawatch.org/2015/01/31/justice-system-steeps-manyoffenders-in-debt/

30 Rosenberg, T. (2011). “Paying for their crimes, again.” The New York Times. http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/06/06/paying-for-theircrimes- again/?_r=0

31 American Bar Association Criminal Justice Section (2015). National Inventory of the Collateral Consequences of Criminal Conviction. http://abacollateralconsequences.org/

32 Fredericksen, A. & Lassiter, L. (2015). “Debtors’ prisons redux: How legal loopholes let courts across the country criminalize poverty.” Alliance for a Just Society. http://allianceforajustsociety.org/issues/criminalization-of-poverty/

33 Albright, L. (2016). “HUD: Arrests cannot be used to deny affordable housing.” People’s World. http://www.peoplesworld.org/hud-arrests-cannot-beused-to-deny-affordable-housing/

34 McCarty, M., Falk, G., Ailson Aussenberg, R., & Carpenter, D. (2015). “Drug testing and crimerelated restrictions in TANF, SNAP, and housing assistance.” Congressional Research Service. https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R42394.pdf

35 McCarty, M., Falk, G., Ailson Aussenberg, R., & Carpenter, D. (2015). “Drug testing and crimerelated restrictions in TANF, SNAP, and housing assistance.” Congressional Research Service. https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R42394.pdf

36 Mock, B. (2015). “Should people with criminal histories be banned from public housing?” CityLab. http://www.citylab.com/crime/2015/09/shouldpeople-with-criminal-histories-be-banned-frompublic-housing/406015/

37 Curtis, M., Garlington, S., & Schottenfeld, L. (2013). “Alcohol, drug, and criminal history restrictions in public housing. Cityscape: A Journal of Policy Development and Research, 15(3). http://www.huduser.gov/portal/periodicals/cityscpe/vol15num3/ch2.pdf

38 Curtis, M., Garlington, S., & Schottenfeld, L. (2013).“Alcohol, drug, and criminal history restrictions in public housing. Cityscape: A Journal of Policy Development and Research, 15(3). http://www.huduser.gov/portal/periodicals/cityscpe/vol15num3/ch2.pdf

39 McCarty, M., Falk, G., Ailson Aussenberg, R., & Carpenter, D. (2015). “Drug testing and crimerelated restrictions in TANF, SNAP, and housing assistance.” Congressional Research Service. https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R42394.pdf

40 McCarty, M., Falk, G., Ailson Aussenberg, R., & Carpenter, D. (2015). “Drug testing and crimerelated restrictions in TANF, SNAP, and housing assistance.” Congressional Research Service. https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R42394.pdf

41 McCarty, M., Falk, G., Ailson Aussenberg, R., & Carpenter, D. (2015). “Drug testing and crime related restrictions in TANF, SNAP, and housing assistance.” Congressional Research Service. https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R42394.pdf

42 McCarty, M., Falk, G., Ailson Aussenberg, R., & Carpenter, D. (2015). “Drug testing and crimerelated restrictions in TANF, SNAP, and housing assistance.” Congressional Research Service. https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R42394.pdf

43 Alliance for a Just Society (2015). “Making Medicaid part of the welcome home from prison.”

44 Ibid.

45 Author’s analysis of American Bar Association Criminal Justice Section (2015). National Inventory of the Collateral Consequences of Criminal Conviction. http://abacollateralconsequences.org/

46 Author’s analysis of data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

47 PayScale. “Mortgage broker salary and benefits: My personal salary report.” http://www.payscale.com/mypayscale.aspx?app=SalaryAndBenefits&pid=3 3d71284-7c07-4a5d-8bae-035b3eba575c

48 Montana Dept. of Justice. “Becoming a public safety officer.” https://dojmt.gov/post/applicant-new/

49 Fredericksen, A. & Lassiter, L. (2015). “Debtors’ prisons redux: How legal loopholes let courts across the country criminalize poverty.” Alliance for a Just Society. http://allianceforajustsociety.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/Debtors-Prisons-Redux-FINAL.pdf

50 American Bar Association Criminal Justice Section (2015). National Inventory of the Collateral Consequences of Criminal Convictions. http://abacollateralconsequences.org/

 

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